From Bus Riders Union to Bus Rapid Transit: Race, Class, and Transit Infrastructure in Los Angeles

With new discussions regarding the possible conversion of the Orange Line to rail, today serves as the perfect opportunity to examine the city's recent bus history, the attitudes that underlie bus transit, and its present and future.

About the Author

Ryan Reft is a historian of 20th and 21st century American history at the Library of Congress. His work has appeared in several journals including Souls, The Sixties, California History, Planning Perspectives, Southern California Quarterly, and the Journa
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Beyond the Valley: Demography, Failed Secession, and Urban Politics in San Fernando Valley

Beyond the Valley: Demography, Failed Secession, and Urban Politics in San Fernando Valley

Few events reveal the impact of shifting San Fernando Valley demographics like the unsuccessful 2002 secession campaign which, even though it ended in failure, revealed startlingly ...
The Valley Paradox: Gentlemen Farming and Immigrant Labor in the Creation of San Fernando Valley

The Valley Paradox: Gentlemen Farming and Immigrant Labor in the Creation of San Fernando Valley

Without Japanese and Mexican American labor, the Valley's image of "whiteness" would not have been possible.
Riding Waves, Forging Communities: Surfing, Gender, and Feminism in 20th Century California

Riding Waves, Forging Communities: Surfing, Gender, and Feminism in 20th Century California

While popular culture has long obscured women's role in the sport, California and female surfers have intertwined to spread surfing not only past national boundaries, but also gend ...
Fighting for Leisure: African Americans, Beaches, and Civil Rights in Early 20th Century L.A.

Fighting for Leisure: African Americans, Beaches, and Civil Rights in Early 20th Century L.A.

Bruce's Beach and the Inkwell served as sites of leisure, agency, community, and controversy, and demonstrate the complex racial history of the Golden State.
Surfing for Freedom: Black Surfers and Reclaiming Cultural History in Los Angeles

Surfing for Freedom: Black Surfers and Reclaiming Cultural History in Los Angeles

Popular culture has long portrayed surfing as a sort of reservoir of bohemian, along with a large helping of agro-masculinity and whiteness. Yet, if one traces its origins you find ...
California Triangulation: Science, Religion, Industry, and the Birth of the Research Park

California Triangulation: Science, Religion, Industry, and the Birth of the Research Park

While undoubtedly influential and important, Northern California's Silicon Valley's rise rests heavily on its Southern California predecessor -- Caltech. Even today, this history r ...
Sporting Golden State: Women and Athletics in 20th Century California

Sporting Golden State: Women and Athletics in 20th Century California

Before and after 1972 when Title IX radically altered American sport, California and its female athletes have been and continue to be a forerunner regarding issues of gender, race, ...
Working to Play, Playing to Work: Mexican American Baseball and Labor in Southern California

Working to Play, Playing to Work: Mexican American Baseball and Labor in Southern California

Baseball enabled Mexican Americans to create connections that helped buoy working class communities, and even contributed to unionization efforts amid widespread discrimination.
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