It was several months into his forced incarceration at Manzanar when Toyo Miyatake shared an epiphany with his teen son Archie.
"As a photographer, I have a responsibility," Toyo said on that dry October day in 1942 as he took out some lenses and film holders from a suitcase. “I have to take all the pictures in Manzanar to keep a record of what's going on here.”
None of it made sense to Archie at the time. “I didn’t know what he was talking about,” he recalled years later. But for Toyo, even without the benefit of years of hindsight and analysis, it was immediately clear to him that injustice had been served to his family and his people. He understood the power of photography, and showing what life was like behind the barbed wires at the concentration camps would ensure that this shameful episode in American history would never be repeated.
As the story goes, Toyo had smuggled in a lens and a film holder to Manzanar. With help from a carpenter and a mechanic, he built a camera around those parts with scrap wood and drain pipes. He was discreet at first, quietly taking photos of camp life and developing the films at night when everybody was asleep. This was a risky move for Toyo since what he was doing was illegal. “[He was] sure taking a lot of chances,” Archie said. But it was a risk Toyo felt he had to take since he knew in his heart that “this kind of thing should never happen again."
Toyo's wish from a lifetime ago still serves as the main inspiration and driving force for Alan Miyatake, son of Archie, who now runs the photo studio his grandfather started almost 100 years ago, and his father kept in operation until he took over. "I keep the studio going to serve the community and to keep his legacy of the Manzanar experience alive,” Alan said in a recent interview.
By the time Executive Order 9066 was issued on February 19, 1942, Toyo Miyatake had operated his eponymous photo studio in Little Tokyo for nearly 20 years. Originally located inside the Toyo Hotel (which coincidentally shared his name) in a block that would later be torn down to make way for LAPD’s Parker Center, the photo studio was purchased by Toyo in 1923 because “his mother convinced him to be a photographer so he would not be a starving artist,” according to Alan. Toyo had been interested in becoming an oil painter.
Toyo began his photography career with tremendous artistic aspirations. He had earned respect as a talented pictorialist within a crowded field of Japanese art photographers who were making their mark in Los Angeles. Modernist master Edward Weston was a peer and mentor. Pioneering cinematographer James Wong Howe was a friend and collaborator. Popular actor Sessue Hayakawa, artist-poet Yumeji Takehisa and avant-garde dancer Michio Ito were subjects of his portraiture. At one point, Toyo was the official dance photographer for the Hollywood Bowl. Toyo’s artistic eye was a natural fit for the Hollywood and bohemian set.
With one foot firmly planted in pictorialism, Toyo let his other footloose and wander around his beloved Little Tokyo. He used his skills as a photographer to capture the day-to-day of Little Tokyo, which allowed him to get closer to the heart and spirit of the community and its people. “He used to walk around and tried to figure out what everybody did, what their habits were,” recalled Yoshiko Sakurai, a former employee at Toyo Miyatake Studio. "That's how where he learned to read human nature."
As the reputation for Toyo's skills in artistic portraiture grew, so too did business at his studio for the less glamorous but equally important work in wedding and family portraits. For the growing number of Japanese Americans in Los Angeles, Toyo became the go-to guy to mark the special occasions in their lives. He was so prolific at documenting the lives of Little Tokyo denizens that it’s not uncommon for people to walk into the Toyo Miyatake Studio and tell Alan that they had their photos taken by his grandfather. “That is really rewarding for me,” Alan said, “that they not only remember him and the studio, but they have trust in the studio that we will continue to do great work.”
When Nisei Week Festival began in 1934 as a means to revitalize Little Tokyo businesses had languished during the Depression, the organizers knew exactly who to ask to take photos of the parade and the pageant Queens. After their return from Manzanar, Toyo and Archie helped revive the festivities after it had taken a hiatus during the war. Today, Alan serves as the third-generation Miyatake photographer to document the annual Nisei Week festivities. It’s a role that Alan has had since 1992, and hopes to continue for many more years to come. “Next year is the 80th Nisei Week festival,” he said. “I have been busy scanning my Nisei Week archives to be ready for their request to see and use old Nisei Week photos. It’s important to be ready for them.”
See how 1st street and the Japanese American community has changed over the decades through Nisei Week photos by Toyo Miyatake Studio. Click right or left below: